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Kyphosis (Humpback)

Kyphosis refers to the forward curvature of the spine. Kyphosis is actually a normal term. The transition to kyphosis is being transformed from the humpbacked and accompanying kyphos.


Pain has a slight association of pain, heaviness and discs allow this. A normal thoracic focus is the focus of the 1st to 12th vertebrae and has a slight angle between 20 and 45. If the curve is greater than 45 degrees, this is called kyphosis (or rather, hyperkyphosis). While kyphosis can be grasped with very patient physics, accurate testability of the nerve may require surgery. Severe kyphosis can also deform their chest, affecting their breathing and heart, leading to their breathing, travel kyphosis, even the heart. It can come from loosening of the spinal nerves, from deceiving oneself.

Inflammatory rheumatism (Arthritis) can lead to excessive curvature of the spine. Osteoarthritis of the spine erodes the joints that connect the vertebrae, causing joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness. Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of rheumatism in which chronic inflammation causes stiffness and pain in the spine. In severe cases, the bones of the spine can fuse together over time, causing stiffness and a hunched posture or kyphosis. Systemic arthritis (like rheumatoid arthritis) can also cause inflammation in the tissue surrounding the thoracic spine, weakening it.

Cancers (such as bone cancer, multiple myeloma) or tumors can lead to kyphosis. Chemotherapy or radiation to the spine and skull for cancer treatment can also damage the spine and make a person more prone to compression fractures, causing the vertebrae to become wedge-shaped, thus breaking, and collapsing the front of the vertebra.

Congenital kyphosis (congenital kyphosis) is a condition caused by a spinal defect that a person has from birth. An incomplete formation of the spine can lead to an extreme kyphosis. Congenital kyphosis is the most common cause of paralysis of the lower spine not related to trauma or infection.

Developmental conditions such as Scheuermann's disease, the most classic form of kyphosis, are the result of wedge vertebrae that develop during the adolescent growth spurt and can lead to a thoracic curve between 45 and 75 degrees. Schmorl's nodules can result from small herniation, compression of the discs between each vertebra. The spinal ligaments thicken and also contribute to the curvature and wedge of the discs. This is a disease with a high genetic component, so familial transmission appears frequent. Between 20 and 30 percent of people with Scheuermann's disease also have some degree of scoliosis.

Disc degeneration, a normal result of aging, can cause the circular discs that act as cushions between the vertebrae to dry out and shrink, causing the vertebrae to collapse on each other and bend the spine forward.

  • Marfan syndrome
  • Spinal fractures due to osteoporosis
  • Neuromuscular muscle diseases
  • Complications after spine surgery
  • Postural kyphosis
  • Trauma


Often patients with kyphosis, especially postural kyphosis, may be asymptomatic. However, often kyphosis can cause back pain. Patients may also notice a difference in their appearance that needs further evaluation. The most common area where kyphosis-related back pain is felt is the mid back or thoracic spine. Other common symptoms include:

  • back pain or stiffness
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Changes in appearance (more rounding of the shoulder blades, hunching)
  • Bad posture
  • Inability to lie completely flat
  • Sometimes associated with pain radiating to the arms or legs

How is Kyphosis (Humpback) Diagnosed?


Kyphosis is the abnormal growth of the normal curvature of the spine.

Therefore, a comprehensive physical examination is extremely important.

Usually, radiography, including lateral scoliosis x-ray, is used to fully visualize the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the sagittal plane.

The angle of kyphosis can be measured and followed using direct X-ray images.

It can also visualize each vertebral body to assess abnormal wedging as seen in Scheurmann's kyphosis.

MRI imaging is required to evaluate the discs of the spine, nerve tissue and accompanying variations.

How is Kyphosis Treatment? Humpback Treatment

Treatment options for kyphosis vary depending on many factors, including the patient's age, the potential for bone growth, the extent of the curvature, the symptoms they experience, and any underlying cause of their kyphosis abnormality. Non-surgical methods are often used, including spine-specific physical therapy and exercise regimens that focus on general posture, flexibility, and strengthening of the muscles surrounding the spine.

Patients with mild kyphosis usually do not need treatment. However, if the angulation is increasing in these patients, close monitoring is essential so that it does not worsen over time. For those with a greater curvature or symptoms of pain and stiffness, an exercise program may be beneficial. The goal of physical therapy is to alleviate patients' symptoms related to their kyphosis, but will not alter the underlying structural abnormality of the spine.

The brace is commonly used for kyphosis, especially in skeletally immature patients. The goal is to prevent further progress during times of rapid growth.

The corset is not an effective treatment for adult patients. The corset is similar to that used in scoliosis patients. However, as each spine is different, the location or type of brace may differ, and therefore each brace should be tailored to the patient.

Thoracolumbar (TLSO) brace or Boston brace is generally recommended for those who need a brace. It fits and molds specifically to the patient's body. This type of corset can be worn under clothing and patients can still participate in sports and other activities.

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Surgery is an option for those with symptomatic or severe kyphosis that does not improve with non-surgical methods. Corrective surgery is usually recommended when the curves are greater than 80 to 90 degrees measured on X-ray.

Sometimes kyphosis can extend to the middle or lower back, and in these cases, earlier surgery may be recommended for those with 60-70 degrees kyphosis. Surgery may also be an option for those with severe or disabling back pain, or when kyphosis causes compression of the spinal cord or nerves.

It requires a good planning in surgery, surgical techniques vary according to the pathology of the patient, and an operation called screw stabilization is required.

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