- Idiopathic Scoliosis
- Adult Scoliosis
- Neuromuscular Scoliosis
Idiopathic scoliosis develops in childhood and is classified according to the age of onset of scoliosis. It is generally classified as Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOS) and Late Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (LIS). Early-onset scoliosis consists of infantile scoliosis (birth to 3 or 4 years of age) and Juvenile scoliosis (4 to 9 years of age). Late-onset scoliosis is also called adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Adolescent scoliosis typically begins between the ages of 10 and 18. The period of rapid growth in children occurs from the moment of birth until the age of three or four and again in adolescence. Scoliosis progression reflects this growth pattern, with rapid curve progression during infancy (0-3 years), followed by slower progression during adolescence (4-9 years) and another rapid progression phase (10-18) in adolescence. The earlier the age of onset of scoliosis, the more progressive it can become.
Infantile Scoliosis develops between birth and 3 years of age. Most of the curves in this age group can be resolved over time with molding. However, those that do can progress quickly and be difficult to manage. Scoliosis in this age group can also be caused by congenital defects of the spine called congenital scoliosis. Defects are malformed or partially formed vertebral bodies that can cause the spine to grow unevenly and result in scoliosis. Progressive scoliosis in this age group can cause significant lung problems due to the lack of normal lung development.
Juvenile Scoliosis develops in the 4-9 age group. Some curvatures in this age group can also be corrected with corset treatment. However, patients with this type of scoliosis may also have rapid progression leading to severe scoliosis. Congenital defects can also cause scoliosis in this age group. This group of patients is treated similarly to those in the infantile group. An MRI may be recommended to evaluate congenital defects of the spine and spinal cord. Progressive scoliosis in this age group can also cause significant lung problems due to the lack of normal lung development.
Adolescent Scoliosis (10 to 18 years)
Adolescent scoliosis develops during the pre-adolescent and teenage years. It is more common in women. It usually becomes evident during the growth spurt in adolescence. Unlike Infantile and Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, the lungs usually develop at this age and lung problems are not as severe unless the scoliosis is larger (80 degrees). The most common type affects the thoracic spine (upper spine, rib cage).